As previously discussed, the military service record of 19th century U.S. Army officers included duty on various ad hoc panels. Duty included temporary appointments to boards of survey and councils of administration. Besides the daily administration and training soldiers, for junior officers no other duty was as frequent as officer of the day. The position required the officer to serve as the on-call commander of a camp or military installation for a 24-hour period. Although temporary, the position of officer of the day held great responsibility.
The adjutant of each station maintained a roster of available officers and established the rotation schedule for the temporary position. Those serving in the position wore a crimson sash. According to the Army Regulations (1863) the sash was “worn across the body, scarf fashion, from the right shoulder to the left side, instead of around the waist, tying behind the left hip as prescribed.”
“The Officer of the Day has charge of the camp or garrison…”
Kautz (1868) outlined the specific responsibilities of an officer of the day. The officer detailed “…receives his orders and instructions from the Commanding Officer, and transmits them to his subordinates. All the guards of the camp or post are under his general direction; all the police parties and fatigue parties, when on duty, within the line of the guards, and often fatigue parties sent beyond the lines receives their orders from the Officer of the Day.” The 1834 edition of army regulations stated that “[n]o other officer except a general officer will interfere with or give any order on the parade to the staff officer on duty there.” However, the officer of the day reported all significant events/ actions directly to the commanding officer of the installation.
In addition, the officer of the day ensured that the camp or garrison remained clean, exercised control of prisoners in the guardhouse, and had the discretion to detain or release prisoners. Not surprisingly, some prisoners took exception to directives issued by the officers. For instance, on June 23, 1868, 1st Lieutenant Theodore Kendall, 33rd Infantry, while serving as officer of the day at McPherson Barracks near Atlanta, Georgia, ordered a prisoner, Private Thomas McDonough (Company I, 16th Infantry) to “carry a log”. Taking offense McDonough refused the order and physically and verbally assaulted the officer. A general court martial panel found McDonough guilty of the crimes and imposed several punishments, including a 15-month incarceration in the Dry Tortugas.
In times of war, when larger military units were constituted, field officers of the day were also detailed. Brigade (compromised of 2 or more regiments) adjutants maintained rosters of officers with the rank of captain to colonel to fulfill the responsibilities referenced above.
Posting and Checking Guards
An officer of the day’s tour began at the daily guard mount which typically occurred in the morning. The new officer of the day held a prominent position in front, and slightly off-center from the guard; the outgoing officer stood directly in front of the guard. Perhaps the most important responsibility of the 24-hour job was ensuring that the guard was all present, outfitted, and properly posted. To that end, the officer visited the guard posts, referred to as grand rounds, frequently during the day and at least once after midnight when arguably, the command was most susceptible to attack. Proactive security measures required the officer of the day to issue daily code words (countersigns and paroles) to the guards.
The military service record of an Old Army officer included various duties, many performed simultaneously. An 1867 diary entry by Captain Tenodor Ten Eyck typifies those various tasks performed in a day. Ten Eyck attended guard mount at 9 a.m. as officer of the day on May 7th. He then served as the president of a general court martial, trying two cases, before attending to company paperwork. Before turning in for the night, Ten Eyck made his grand rounds at 12:30 a.m. on May 8th.
The Cost of being Inattentive
Inattention to guard duty was, for good reason, a very serious military crime punishable by death. Not surprisingly, most infractions on guard duty occurred at night. For that reason, officers of the day visited guard posts at least once at night and more frequently in times of hostilities. Officers tending to the nightly grand rounds often found sentinels sleeping. Court martial records from the 19th century contain frequent reference to those offenses. For instance, in May 1870, 4th Cavalry private James Devine was posted as a guard at the post guardhouse in San Antonio, Texas. The officer of the day discovered Devine sleeping in a chair between 3 and 4 a.m. The respite cost the private $84 from his monthly pay and confinement at hard labor for six months.
Failure by an officer of the day to visit guards or pickets in the night was just as serious. The case of Captain Henry Hase, 103rd New York Infantry, illustrates the point. Hase joined the 103rd New York Infantry in 1861 as a sergeant and rose through the ranks. On March 8, 1864, Hase, serving as field officer of the day, failed to obey written instructions to visit the brigade picket line on Folly River, South Carolina between the hours of 3 and 5 a.m. The transgression found Hase defending against two charges (neglect of duty and disobedience of orders) at a general court martial. The court panel found Hase guilty and abruptly dismissed him from the army; a permanent blemish to his military service record.
Although mundane, officer of the day assignments were critical in the 19th century U.S. Army. As shown above, the duty factored into the service of officers and enlisted men. Old Army Records continues to identify these details to complete the military service history of the soldiers who served during the period. Check back in two weeks for an overview of duty affecting both officers and enlisted men: countersigns and paroles. In the meantime, feel free to contact us with questions or comments.
Unpublished Sources (indexed by Old Army Records)
General Court Martial Orders, Department of the South
General Court Martial Orders, Department of Texas
Lists Relating to Safeguards, Details, and Other Matters, Department of Missouri, Army of the Frontier, 1st Division, 1st Brigade
Rosters of Officers and Organizations, Fort Assinniboine (1893), Fort Assinniboine Records, Box 6, Folder 11, Montana Historical Society Research Center, Archives, Helena, Montana
General Regulations for the Army (1834)
Revised U.S. Army Regulations (1863)
Customs of Service for Officers of the Army (1868)
Tenodor Ten Eyck Diaries (1860-1871), Special Collections, University of Arizona Libraries, Tucson. Digital copies in the possession of Kevin O’Dell.