Hardtack, muskets, and haversacks are synonymous with the 19th century U.S. Army. Aside from being used by soldiers, what do these articles have in common? Army horses and mules transported all three items, and hundreds more like them. All government property included some form of labeling and unique identification. Packages of provisions had the contents, and often the name of the supplier, stenciled on the outside. Muskets included arsenal marks. Rifles, which replaced muskets, were stamped with unique serial numbers. Some soldiers labeled their haversacks with indelible ink. Later versions often had unit information (company and regiment) stenciled on the outer flap.
As previously discussed, horses and mules represented a substantial financial investment and required more thorough tracking. How were the army horses and mules identified and described? The Old Army used several methods to characterize those important assets.
A Wide Color Spectrum
Army horses and mules came in a wide range of colors and color combinations. Color, therefore, was the basic descriptor, of government livestock. Hues included chestnut, bay, gray, flea-bitten gray, buckskin, strawberry roan, dun, and black, just to name a few. Animals often had distinctive body markings with patterns on the face and leg markings being most prevalent.
Early in the 19th century, U.S. Army regulations stipulated that units maintain descriptive books for horses. The 1821 regulations stated that the books should include the age, height, and color of the animals. The registers provided a ready reference for animals lost, injured, or sold. For example, in July 1868, Lieutenant Ephraim Tillotson desired to buy a public horse. Department of Platte headquarters consented to sell the animal once a board of survey convened to determine the purchase price. The three-member panel valued the light bay horse with black feet, mane and tail and “no other marks upon him” at $61.66⅔. More often, colors and markings were used in conjunction with brands.
Army Horse and Mule Brands
In addition to requiring units to maintain descriptive books of public horses, the 1821 Army Regulation also required that “horses and draft cattle, in the use of a regiment, or of individual officers, will each be branded with the letters “U. S.” on some conspicuous part.
The 1895 edition of army regulations further specified that horses for cavalry and light artillery “will be branded ‘U. S.’ on the hoof of the left fore foot, other animals on the left shoulder. Cavalry and light artillery horses will also be branded under the mane with the number of regiment and letter of troop or battery [emphasis added by author].” The War Department clarified the branding further in 1897 by issuing General Order No. 62. The order provided detailed instructions of the size and placement of brands provided by the Quartermaster’s Department. For example, soldiers branded the fore foot 1” below the coronet. The fore foot marking also included the regiment and troop or battery. Regulations called for the ” U. S.” brand to be 2 inches high.
Brands provided ready identification of government stock. More importantly, brands identified former horses and mules deemed unworthy of federal service. For example, an “I.C.” brand showed that an animal was inspected and condemned. A “C” brand simply meant condemned while an “S” indicated that the animal was either sold or destined for sale. Together, the three brands were meant to prevent unscrupulous horse contractors from reselling unserviceable livestock to the government.
Descriptions of Army Horses and Mules Direct From Old Army Records
Unfortunately, few descriptive books of army horses and mules are extant, for the eighty-year period ending in 1900. However, Old Army Records recently found a record kept at Fort Custer from 1887 – 1896. It includes about 1,200 animals, many with names assigned to the horses and mules. We also found descriptive data of public animals in other, seemingly, unrelated record sets. Here are few examples of animals described in the records.
Take, for instance, “Signal” a 15-year-old black cavalry horse stationed at Fort Custer, Montana Territory. In addition to a blaze on the face and small patch of white on his right hind foot, Signal had an “S” branded on the right hip. “Fox”, a 15-year old sorrel mule driven by a man named Archer at Fort Custer, had a white spot on the left side of his neck. Descriptive data also listed scars and physical deformities. For example, a black mule driven by a H. Brown was blind in its right eye. A quartermaster employee or soldier sarcastically named her “Blinky”.
In 1882, Company C, Indian Scouts served in Arizona. The unit assembled an extensive herd of saddle horses and pack mules. The small herd consisted of animals with wide-range of colors and private brands (see photo at left). Does anyone recognize the marks? Several of the Scouts’ animals also had distinctive marks left by collars and aparejos.
Interested in learning more about horses and any other 19th U.S. military topic? Drop us a line to learn how you can connect with the Old Army.
Unpublished Sources (indexed by Old Army Records)
Company C, Indian Scouts, Animal Descriptive Book (1882)
Fort Custer, M.T., Animal Descriptive Book
Proceedings of Boards of Survey, Fort Phil Kearny, D.T.
General Regulations for the Army (1821)
Military Laws and Rules and Regulations for the Army of the United States (1814)
Regulations for the Army of the United States (1895, appended 1899)